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Exploring Potential Research Topics

Paper , Order, or Assignment Requirements

Based on your business experience and the information accumulated in this course, identify three possible research topics related to the subject of the course. What managerial problems or opportunities would each of the three topics address? Provide a short description for each research topic, highlighting the following: •The problem or opportunity in organizations that needs to be addressed •The purpose of the research •The question(s) that, if answered, will help in solving the problem or seizing the opportunity Write your initial response in 300–500 words.

Discussion #3

Paper , Order, or Assignment Requirements

what do you think is the main difference among them? Write about at least two (poetry, short stories, or drama) and explain what is different about them and what is similar. Include quotations from any works you discuss, and remember to include a question for the rest of the class in your response.

Facilities Operations

Paper , Order, or Assignment Requirements

Facilities Operations Lean operations create more value for customers while using fewer resources than traditional operations. In this assignment, you will identify the business planning process for a lean management operation by implementing an information system in a service or manufacturing organization. Choose a company different from those evaluated in previous assignments. Examples of information systems that reduce waste in organizations could include the following: •A new inventory tracking software •An electronic payment system for products and services (For example, a service organization such as a car wash that currently only accepts cash payments upgrades their systems to accept credit card and PayPal payments.) •A Web site to receive personalized orders from customers for a manufacturing organization Based on your analysis of the company, address the following: •Explain the current business model and discuss the benefits of incorporating the lean process. Describe a specific approach to acquiring and using the lean process. •Justify the incorporation of a lean approach. Describe the potential effect of the business growth as related to supply chain management. Include safety and precautionary processes to protect the business from fraud.

 

Quality Management

Paper , Order, or Assignment Requirements

Quality management and control are critical operational management functions and cornerstone elements in the strategy of a successful company. Research a company in the manufacturing or service sector recognized for successfully including quality management in its business strategy. Based on your research, respond to the following: •Describe the quality challenges that the company used to face. How has the company’s quality improved over the years? •What is the company doing to convey improved quality in its marketing message? (For example, Ford Motor Company had a marketing campaign “Quality is Job 1” that ended in 2011.) •Compare and contrast your findings for the company’s strategy using this module’s readings. By the due date assigned, post your responses to the Discussion Area. Through the end of the module, comment on at least two of your peers’ responses. Write your initial response in 300–500 words.

BPR Case Study

Paper , Order, or Assignment Requirements

For this assignment, you will create and present a case study based on the information gathered for your literature review developed for RA 1. You may also include any other resources that you consider relevant. Your case study should demonstrate the impact of information technology (IT) on business process reengineering (BPR) processes and illustrate the relationship between the two in international operations. Write a 10–12-page report that addresses the items listed under the Directions section. Background: A business process includes activities and tasks that cross functional or organizational boundaries. BPR is a structured approach to analyzing and improving fundamental activities such as manufacturing, marketing, communications, and other major elements. It is expected from the redesign of the business processes to foster sustained improvements in quality, cost, service, lead time, flexibility, and innovation. BPR delivers radical and incremental business improvements through the identification and removal of waste and inefficiency. IT is the most important factor to enable newly redesigned processes; however, BPR does not refer to automating poor processes. Directions: 1.Revisit the literature you synthesized in RA 1, taking into account the feedback received from your instructor. Identify at least five other relevant articles that will help you develop your BPR recommendations. 2.Identify a company with international operations for which you will be developing your case study and the business process(es) in need of improvement. 3.Your case study should provide the context for BPR by discussing all of the following aspects of the business: a.Facilities, location(s), and capacity (including corporate headquarters, satellite facilities, warehouses, etc.) b.Business strategy c.Types of products or services offered d.Target markets e.Supply chain characteristics 4.Analyze the business process(es) that need improvement. Refer to the following: a.The place in the value chain and the importance to the organizational performance b.Current operations and performance c.Human resources d.Current technology as it is related to the addressed business processes 5.Identify and evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of at least two options for improving business performance through BPR and associated technology needs. 6.Recommend a technology for improving business performance based on your case analysis. Consider the human resource implications of your solution. Justify your recommendation. Write a 10–12-page paper in Word format. Use at least five scholarly articles in addition to those used in RA 1 to complete your research

Health science- E335: The Lurking Pandemic: Chronic Disease EpidemiologyDescribingChronic Disease III

Paper , Order, or Assignment Requirements

Part I
The following description first appeared as a case study in Epidemiology: Study Design and Data Analysis, 2nd Edition, edited by Mark Woodward:
Scotland’s annual mortality rate from coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the highest in the world, although the rates vary considerably between regions of the country. Concern about the high overall CHD mortality rate led to the establishment of a cardiovascular epidemiology unit at the University of Dundee, with the remit to undertake a range of epidemiological studies in order to understand the factors associated with CHD prevalence across Scotland.
The Scottish Heart Health Study (SHHS) was one of these epidemiological studies, with the following objectives (Smith et al., 1987):
1. To establish the levels of CHD risk factors in a cross-sectional sample of Scottish men and women aged 40 to 59 years drawn from different localities;
2. to determine the extent to which the geographical variation in CHD can be explained in terms of the geographical variation in risk factor levels; and
3. to assess the relative contribution of the established risk factors, as well as some more recently described ones, to the prediction of CHD within a cohort of men and women in Scotland.
Subjects were sampled from 22 of the 56 mainland Scottish local government districts, as defined in the mid-1980s. In each district a number of general practitioners were randomly selected. From their list of patients, an equal number of people were selected in the four age/sex groups: male, 40-49 years; female, 40-49 years; male, 50-59 years; female, 50-59 years; Each selected subject was sent a questionnaire to complete and an invitation, jointly signed by the general practitioner and study leader, to attend at a local clinic. The questionnaire included questions on sociodemographic status (age, sex, marital status, employment, etc.), past medical history, exercise, diet, health knowledge, and smoking. Also included was the Rose chest pain questionnaire (Rose et al., 1977), which is used in the determination of prevalent CHD.
The subjects took the completed questionnaires with them to the clinic where they were checked. Height, weight, and blood pressure were then recorded and a 12-lead electrocardiogram was administered by trained nurses. A blood sample was taken, from which serum total cholesterol and several other biochemical variables were measured.
Some respondents failed to attend for their clinical appointment. These were invited a second time, but, again, not everyone responded. Altogether, information was obtained from 74% of those who received postal questionnaires and invitations, giving a total sample size of 10,359. In many cases, the information was not complete; for instance, blood samples were not obtained for 10.6% of the sample.

While the cross-sectional portion of the SHHS led to many findings regarding the burden of CHD and various risk factors as well as identification of high-risk groups, these studies were limited in their ability to draw any causal conclusions.
1. Discuss why the cross-sectional studies were insufficient for causal inference of etiologic factors for CHD.

You may use any statistical program to analyze these data. Since we have only discussed Excel in this class, I will draw upon this in my examples. Recall, a pivot table is an easy way to summarize univariable (only summarizing by one variable) and bivariable (summarizing by two variables) comparisons for a sample. Also recall, for analyzing bivariablecategorical data in contingency tables it is customary to place the disease status in the columns (with the diseased in the first column) and the risk factor of interest in the rows (with the exposure of interest in the first row). I provide examples of what your contingency tables for question one should look like below (without the values):
Univariable:

Bivariable:

For part one, you will be analyzing the data in the sheets titled “part 1” and “part1_2” of the accompanying Describing Chronic Disease III Data.xlsx file. These are data from a cross-sectional study in Scotland. In this part of the study, you are interested in assessing the relationship between smoking and risk of developing CHD.
1. Calculate the following prevalence proportions for CHD.
a. Prevalence (%) of CHD in the sample

b. Prevalence (%) of CHD among:
Smokers:

non-smokers:

3. Interpret the prevalence measures among smokers and non-smokers. Are the results consistent with your expectations for the relationship between smoking and CHD?

Answer the questions below using the data contained in the sheet “part 1_2”, which provides a more detailed classification of the exposure for smoking.

5. Using sheet “part 1_2”, calculate the prevalence of CHD for:
a. Current smokers

b. Ex-smokers

c. Never smokers

6. Interpret the CHD prevalence measures when classified by current, ex-, and never smokers. Are the results consistent with your expectations for the relationship between smoking and CHD?

7. What could explain the CHD prevalence discrepancies observed between the two smoking classification methods? (Hint: A large limitation to using cross-sectional studies to study disease etiology).

Part II
In this part of the study, you are interested in assessing the relationship between living arrangement and risk of developing CHD. These are actual data collected from the SHHS cohort (follow-up) study.
1. Calculate the following cumulative incidence values for CHD.
a. Incidence (%) of CHD in the sample

b. Incidence (%) of CHD among renters and owners

3. Calculate the odds ratio and risk ratio comparing the risk of CHD among home renters to the risk of CHD among home owners.

4. Are the odds ratio and risk ratio different from each other? If so, explain why.

5. Could smoking confound the relationship between living arrangement and CHD? Explain how using the criteria for confounding.

6. Test for the presence of confounding by smoking and decide whether or not you should adjust for smoking status.

Part III
In part III of the study, you will utilize the data in the sheet named “part 3” of the accompanying Describing Chronic Disease III Data.xlsx file. You are interested in determining if the participant’s occupationalsocial class influenced their risk of CHD. The data dictionary for occupational social class is depicted below.
Social Class Description
1 Nonmanual, professional
2 Nonmanual, intermediate
3 Nonmanual, skilled
4 Manual, skilled
5 Manual, partially skilled
6 Manual, unskilled

1. Determine the incidence (%) of CHD in the sample.

2. For each level of occupational social class, determine the incidence (%) of CHD.

3. Using nonmanual, professional (1) as the reference, calculate the risk ratios for each occupational social class (2-6).

4. Create a bar chart that depicts the risk ratios (Y-axis) by occupational social class (x-axis).

5. What do you observe?

Part IV
In the final part of the study, you will utilize the data in the sheet named “part 4” of the accompanying Describing Chronic Disease III Data.xlsx file. These data are from the cohort phase of the SHHS. In total, 4,095 men who were free of CHD at baseline had their cholesterol level measured. The continuous variable cholesterol was grouped into five quintiles, with the value “1” representing those men in the lowest 20% for cholesterol level and the value “5” representing men in the highest 20% for cholesterol level. The study objective was to determine the CHD risk by cholesterol level (after 6 years of follow-up).

1. Determine the incidence (%) of CHD for each of the five cholesterol quintiles.

2. Using cholesterol quintile 1 (lowest cholesterol) as the reference, determine the risk ratio for cholesterol quintiles 2-5.

3. Plot the risk ratios on a bar chart in which risk ratio is on the y-axis and cholesterol quintile is on the x-axis.

4. What do you observe? Is there evidence of causality? What other (famous) study has demonstrated similar results in a different population?

Discussion #3

Paper , Order, or Assignment Requirements

In each discussion you will answer the question I include, and then ask your classmates a question about what you’ve written. The idea is to discuss the readings together, to bounce idea off each other, and to discuss your writing individually and with your classmates. For this week, I want you to consider genre. That means the type of literature you’re discussing. So far you’ve read poetry (Shakespeare and Dickinson), short stories (Chopin, Gilman, Poe, and Hawthorne), and drama (Williams). You can find good definitions of each genre at this site. Now that you’ve read a bit of each type of genre, what do you think is the main difference among them? Write about at least two (poetry, short stories, or drama) and explain what is different about them and what is similar.

Exploring Potential Research Topics

Paper , Order, or Assignment Requirements

Based on your business experience and the information accumulated in this course, identify three possible research topics related to the subject of the course. What managerial problems or opportunities would each of the three topics address? Provide a short description for each research topic, highlighting the following: •The problem or opportunity in organizations that needs to be addressed •The purpose of the research •The question(s) that, if answered, will help in solving the problem or seizing the opportunity Write your initial response in 300–500 words.

Facilities Operations

Paper , Order, or Assignment Requirements

Facilities Operations Lean operations create more value for customers while using fewer resources than traditional operations. In this assignment, you will identify the business planning process for a lean management operation by implementing an information system in a service or manufacturing organization. Choose a company different from those evaluated in previous assignments. Examples of information systems that reduce waste in organizations could include the following: •A new inventory tracking software •An electronic payment system for products and services (For example, a service organization such as a car wash that currently only accepts cash payments upgrades their systems to accept credit card and PayPal payments.) •A Web site to receive personalized orders from customers for a manufacturing organization Based on your analysis of the company, address the following: •Explain the current business model and discuss the benefits of incorporating the lean process. Describe a specific approach to acquiring and using the lean process. •Justify the incorporation of a lean approach. Describe the potential effect of the business growth as related to supply chain management. Include safety and precautionary processes to protect the business from fraud.

Quality Management

Paper , Order, or Assignment Requirements

Quality management and control are critical operational management functions and cornerstone elements in the strategy of a successful company. Research a company in the manufacturing or service sector recognized for successfully including quality management in its business strategy. Based on your research, respond to the following: •Describe the quality challenges that the company used to face. How has the company’s quality improved over the years? •What is the company doing to convey improved quality in its marketing message? (For example, Ford Motor Company had a marketing campaign “Quality is Job 1” that ended in 2011.) •Compare and contrast your findings for the company’s strategy using this module’s readings. By the due date assigned, post your responses to the Discussion Area. Through the end of the module, comment on at least two of your peers’ responses. Write your initial response in 300–500 words.

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